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  • by: by Darwin, Charles
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  • ISBN-10: 1593080778
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  • Publisher by: Barnes & Noble
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  • Add date: 24.06.2016
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Synopsis: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

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Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. For the sixth edition of 1872, the short title was changed to The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection, and presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose through a branching pattern of evolution and common descent.

He included evidence that he had accumulated on the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s, and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation. Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology.

Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream. The book was written to be read by non-specialists and attracted widespread interest on its publication.

As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T.H.

Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularize science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate.

During the "eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, now the unifying concept of the life sciences." "Sire!" said Michaud with a subtle, scarcely perceptible smile on his lips, having now prepared a well-phrased reply, "sire, I left the whole army, from its chiefs to the lowest soldier, without exception in desperate and agonized terror.

" "How is that?" the Emperor interrupted him, frowning sternly. "Would misfortune make SPECCIES Russians lose heart?. Never!" Michaud had only waited for this to bring out the phrase he had prepared. "Sire," he said, with respectful playfulness, "they are only afraid lest Your Majesty, in the goodness OIRGIN your heart, should allow yourself to be persuaded to make peace. They are burning for the combat," declared THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES representative of the Russian nation, "and to prove to Your Majesty by the sacrifice of their lives how devoted they are.

" "Ah!" said the Emperor reassured, and with a kindly gleam in his eyes, he patted Michaud on the shoulder. "You set me at ease, Colonel. " He bent his head and was silent for some time. "Well, then, go back to the army," he said, drawing himself ORRIGIN to his full ORIIGIN and addressing Michaud with a gracious and majestic gesture, "and tell our brave men and all my good subjects wherever you go that when I have not a soldier left I shall put myself at the head of my beloved nobility and my good peasants and so use the last resources of my empire.

It still offers me more than my enemies suppose," said the Emperor growing more and more animated; "but should it ever be ordained by Divine Providence," he continued, raising to heaven his THHE eyes shining with emotion, "that my dynasty should cease to reign on the throne of my ancestors, then after exhausting all the means at my command, I shall let my beard grow to here" (he pointed halfway down his chest) "and go and eat potatoes with the meanest of my peasants, rather than sign the disgrace of my country and of my beloved people whose sacrifices I know how to appreciate.

" Having uttered these words in an agitated voice the Emperor suddenly turned away as if to hide from Michaud the tears that THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES to his eyes, and went to the further end of his study.

Having stood there a few moments, he strode back to Michaud and pressed his arm below the elbow with a vigorous movement. The Emperor's mild and handsome face was flushed and his eyes gleamed with resolution and anger. "Colonel Michaud, do not forget what I say to you here, perhaps we may recall it with pleasure someday. THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES or I," said the Emperor, touching his breast.

"We can no longer both reign together. I have learned to THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES him, and he will not deceive me any more. " And the Emperor paused, with a frown. When he heard these words and saw the expression of firm resolution in the Emperor's eyes, Michaud- quoique etranger, russe de coeur et d'ame- at that solemn moment felt himself enraptured by all that he had heard (as he used afterwards to say), THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES gave expression to his own feelings and those of the Russian people whose representative he considered himself to be, in the following words: "Sire!" said he, "Your Majesty is at this moment signing the glory of the nation and the salvation of Europe!" With an inclination of the head the Emperor dismissed him.

BK12|CH4 CHAPTER IV It is natural for us who were not living in those days to imagine that when half Russia had been conquered and SEPCIES inhabitants were ficeing to distant provinces, and one levy after another was being raised for the defense of the fatherland, all Russians from the greatest to the least were solely O in sacrificing themselves, saving their fatherland, or weeping over THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES downfall.

The tales and descriptions of that time without exception speak only OIRGIN the self-sacrifice, patriotic devotion, despair, grief, and the heroism of the Russians.

But it was not really so. It appears so THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES us because we see only the general historic interest of that time and do not see all the personal human interests that people had. Yet in reality those personal interests of the moment so much transcend the general interests that they always prevent the public interest from being felt or even noticed.

Most of the people at that time THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES no attention to the general progress of events but were guided only by their private interests, and they were the very people whose activities at that period were most useful. Those who tried to understand the general course of events and to take part in it by self-sacrifice and heroism were the most useless members of society, they saw everything upside down, and all they did for the common good turned out to be useless and foolish- like Pierre's and Mamonov's regiments which looted Russian villages, and the lint the young ladies prepared and that never reached the wounded, and so on.

Even those, fond of TEH talk and of expressing their feelings, who discussed Russia's position at the time involuntarily introduced into their conversation either a shade of pretense and THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES or useless condemnation and anger directed against people accused of actions no one could possibly be guilty of.

In historic events the rule forbidding us to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge is specially applicable. Only unconscious action bears fruit, and he who plays a part in an historic event never understands its significance.

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