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Includes bibliographical references and index.The great fathers and renowned leaders of the early Church accepted and strengthened this idea.

Origen Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 "It Assewsment demons which produce famine, unfruitfulness, corruptions of the air, pestilences; they hover concealed in clouds in the lower atmosphere, and are attracted by the blood and Psychhological which the heathen offer to them as gods.

" St. Augustine said: "All diseases of Christians are to be ascribed to these demons; chiefly do they torment fresh-baptized Christians, yea, even the guiltless, newborn infants.

" Tertullian insisted that a malevolent angel is in constant attendance upon every person. Gregory of Nazianzus declared that bodily pains are provoked by demons, and that medicines are useless, but that they are often cured by the laying on of consecrated hands.

Nilus and St. Gregory of Tours, echoing St. Ambrose, gave examples to show the sinfulness of resorting to medicine instead of trusting to the intercession of saints. Bernard, in a Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 to certain monks, warned them that to seek relief from disease in medicine was in harmony neither with 97811189606446 religion nor with the honour and purity of their order.

This view even found its way into the canon law, which declared the precepts of medicine contrary to Divine knowledge. As 9871118960646 rule, the leaders of the Church discouraged the theory that diseases are due to natural causes, and most of them deprecated a resort to surgeons and physicians rather than to supernatural means.

[[28]] Out of these and similar considerations was developed the vast system of "pastoral medicine," so powerful not only through the Middle Ages, but even Psychologjcal modern times, both among Catholics and Protestants. As to its results, we must bear in mind that, while there is no need to attribute the mass of stories regarding miraculous cures to conscious fraud, there was without doubt, at a later period, no small admixture of belief biased by self-interest, with much Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 invention and suppression of facts.

Enormous revenues flowed into various monasteries and churches in all parts of Europe from relics noted for their healing powers.

Every cathedral, every great abbey, and nearly every parish church claimed possession of healing relics. While, undoubtedly, a childlike faith Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 at the bottom of this belief, there came out of it Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 a great development of the mercantile spirit. The commercial value of sundry relics was often very high. In the year 1056 a French ruler pledged securities to the amount of ten thousand solidi for the production of the relics of St.

Just and St. Pastor, pending a legal decision regarding the ownership between him Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 the Archbishop of Narbonne. The Emperor of Germany on one occasion demanded, as a sufficient pledge for the establishment of a city market, the arm of St. George. The body of St. Sebastian brought enormous wealth to the Abbey of Soissons; Rome, Canterbury, Treves, Marburg, every great city, drew large revenues from similar sources, and the Venetian Republic ventured very considerable sums in the purchase of relics.

Naturally, then, corporations, whether lay or ecclesiastical, which drew large revenue from relics looked with little favour on a science which tended to discredit their investments. Nowhere, perhaps, in Europe can the philosophy of this development of fetichism be better studied to-day than at Cologne. At the cathedral, preserved in a magnificent shrine since about the twelfth century, are the skulls of the Three Kings, or Wise Men of the East, who, guided by the star of Bethlehem, brought gifts to the Saviour.

These relics were an Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 source of wealth to the cathedral chapter during many centuries. But other ecclesiastical bodies in that city were both pious and shrewd, and so we find that not far off, at the church of St. Gereon, a cemetery has been dug up, and the if distributed over Hanrbook walls as the relics of St. Gereon and his Theban band of martyrs. Again, at the neighbouring church of St. Ursula, we have the later spoils of another cemetery, covering the interior walls of the church as the bones of St.

Ursula and her eleven thousand virgin martyrs: the fact that many of them, as anatomists now declare, are the bones of _men_ does not appear in the Middle Ages to have diminished their power of competing with the relics Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 the other shrines in healing efficiency.

No error in the choice Handbook of Psychological Assessment 9781118960646 these healing means seems to have diminished their efficacy.

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