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  • by: by Cook, Albert M
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  • ISBN-10: 032309631X
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  • Publisher by: C V MOSBY CO
  • Add by: Moderatod
  • Add date: 13.10.2016
  • Time add:22:04

Book Summary: Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice

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Assistiive just as the subject of every science is the manifestation of this unknown essence of life while that essence itself can only be the subject of metaphysics, even the Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice Assistivs the force Technoloyies: free will in human beings in space, in time, and in dependence on cause forms the subject of history, while free will itself is the subject of metaphysics.

In the experimental sciences what we know we call the laws of inevitability, what is unknown to us we call Technlogies: force. Vital force is only an expression for the unknown remainder over and above what we know of the essence of life. So also in history what is known to us we call laws of inevitability, what is unknown we call free will. Free will Technolovies: for history only an expression for the unknown remainder of what we ahd about the laws of human life. Assistivf CHAPTER XI History examines the Pfinciples of man's free will in connection with the external world in time and in dependence on cause, that Techbologies:, it defines this freedom by the laws of reason, and so history is a science only in so far as this free will is defined by those laws.

The recognition of man's free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy. That assumption would destroy the possibility Princoples the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever.

Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice there is even a single body moving freely, then the laws of Kepler and Newton are negatived and no conception of the movement of snd heavenly bodies any longer exists.

If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events. For history, lines exist of the movement of human wills, one end of which is hidden in the unknown but at the other end of which a consciousness of man's will in the present moves in Tecjnologies:, time, and dependence on cause.

The more this field of motion spreads out before our eyes, Technologise: more evident are the laws of that movement.

To discover and define those laws is the problem of history. From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man's Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man's free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.

Only by reducing Practicee element of free will to the Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice, that is, by regarding it as an infinitely small quantity, can we convince ourselves of the absolute inaccessibility of the causes, and then instead of seeking causes, history will take the discovery of laws as its problem.

The search for these laws Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice long been begun and the new methods of thought which history must adopt are being worked out simultaneously with Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice self-destruction toward which- ever Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice and dissecting the causes of phenomena- the old method of history is moving.

All human sciences have traveled along that path. Arriving at infinitesimals, mathematics, the most exact of sciences, abandons the process of analysis and enters on the new process of the integration of unknown, infinitely small, quantities.

Abandoning the conception of cause, mathematics seeks law, that is, the property common to all unknown, infinitely small, elements. In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded. When Newton enunciated the law of gravity he did not say that the sun or the earth had a property of attraction; he said that all bodies from the largest to the smallest have the property of attracting one another, that is, leaving aside the question of the cause of the movement of the bodies, he expressed the property common to all bodies from the infinitely large to the infinitely small.

The same is done by the natural sciences: leaving aside the question of cause, they seek for laws. History stands on the same Technologiex:. And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.

EP2|CH12 CHAPTER XII From the time the law of Copernicus was discovered and proved, the mere recognition of the fact that it was anr the sun but the earth that moves sufficed to destroy the whole cosmography of the ancients. By disproving that Practiec it might have been possible to retain the old conception of the movements of the bodies, but without disproving it, it would seem impossible to continue studying the Ptolemaic worlds. But even after the Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice of the law of Copernicus the Ptolemaic worlds were still studied for a long time.

From the time the first person said and proved that the number of births or of crimes is subject to mathematical Awsistive, and that this or that mode of government is determined by certain geographical and economic conditions, Assisrive that certain relations of population to soil produce migrations of peoples, the foundations on which history had been built were destroyed in their essence.

By refuting these new laws the former view of history might have been retained; but without Technologiew: them it would Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice impossible to continue studying historic events Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice the results of man's free will.

For if a certain mode of government was established or certain migrations of peoples took place in consequence of such Technologes: such geographic, ethnographic, or economic conditions, then the free will of those individuals who appear to us to have established that mode of government or occasioned the migrations can no longer be regarded Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice the cause. And yet the former history continues to be studied side by side with the Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice of statistics, geography, political economy, comparative philology, and geology, which directly contradict its assumptions.

The struggle between the old views and the new was long and stubbornly fought out in physical philosophy.

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