Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet.[1][2] Passed on October 12, 1998, by a unanimous vote in the United States Senate and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on October 28, 1998, the DMCA amended Title 17 of the United States Code to extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of online services for copyright infringement by their users. The DMCA's principal innovation in the field of copyright is the exemption from direct and indirect liability of Internet service providers and other intermediaries. This exemption was adopted by the European Union in the Electronic Commerce Directive 2000. The Copyright Directive 2001 implemented the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty in the EU.

The Copyright Office has concluded the sixth triennial rulemaking proceeding pursuant to 17 U.S.C. § 1201. This page contains links to the Register's Recommendation, the Final Rule (Public Inspection) announcing the exemptions, and a document addressing Frequently Asked Questions about the rulemaking. An Introduction to the Register’s Recommendation summarizes the exemptions and the rulemaking process. The record of the 2015 proceeding, including the written submissions, hearing transcripts, etc., may be accessed through the links on the right-hand side of this page. For all inquiries, please contact the Copyright Office’s Public Information Office at or (202) 707-5959.

See also

  • Digital Economy Act 2010
  • Stop Online Piracy Act
  • Lexmark wins injunction in DMCA case (англ.)
  • BALANCE Act, Benefit Authors without Limiting Advancement or Net Consumer Expectations Act of 2003


  • Cullins, Ashley Music Industry A-Listers Call on Congress to Reform Copyright Act Hollywood Reporter. April 5, 2016
  • "Vessel Hull Design Protection Act of 1997 (H.R. 2696)", Statement of MaryBeth Peters, The Register of Copyrights, before the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property, Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. 23, 1997 ("It is a long-held view of the Office that a gap exists in legal protection for the designs of useful articles. Existing bodies of federal intellectual property law do not provide appropriate and practical coverage for such designs, while state law is largely preempted in this area. Consequently, while considerable investment and creativity may go into the creation of innovative designs, they often can be copied with impunity.").
  • Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-04. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
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